Steve’s biography is virtually unparalleled in both its scope and its diversity. You are invited to browse the following summary of his life’s work to date.



January 2012 to present, a consultant/advisor to Clean Energy Systems, Inc.

2008 to the present, an Associate of International Space Services, Inc. of McLean Virginia:an international consulting group assisting governments and organizations with interests in activities in outer space.

January 2007 to present, an independent consultant in matters of aerospace law, national and international space law, international astronautical organizations, national and international space policy, and related subjects.

January 2004 to December 2012, Executive Vice President, Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Clean Energy Systems moved from technology development and demonstration to commercialization of its products and services, enabling energy generation without pollution.  The aerospace-experienced founders gradually reduced their management roles as new managers assumed control to take the company into the commercial marketplace.  This transition unfolded over several years.

January 2005 to 2015 – Vice President, Administration, for C2Associates, Phoenix, AZ, a company engaged in facilitating industry/government interface for the introduction and support of new products and services supporting national and homeland security. C2 ceased to exist in 2018

September 2001 - December 2003 – President, Clean Energy Systems, Inc., Member of the Board.

December 1999 - August 2001 – President & CEO, Clean Energy Systems, Inc., Member of the Board.

August 1996 - November 1999 - Incorporator, Vice President for Administration, Corporate Secretary, Member of the Board, Clean Energy Systems, Inc., (CES) Sacramento CA. CES is a manufacturing/engineering company developing new technologies for pollution-free generation of electric power. For company information, visit

March 1981 - May 1996 – Director, Senior Manager, and Manager, in positions involving program management, marketing, environmental affairs, and strategic planning with an aerospace propulsion system design, development and manufacturing organization, the Aerojet-General Corporation at its Sacramento, CA Propulsion Plant. Retired, May 1996.

Nov 1978 - March 1981 - Program Manager, Telecommunication & Information Systems and Space Studies, Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Washington, DC. Supervised and participated in studies of national policy in the titled topic areas. Selected and supervised contractors in office support studies and managed small (4 to 6) professional staff, as well as 2 to 4 contractors at a time.

April 1974 - Nov 1978 - Deputy Director, Office of International Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Supervised office staff (25); supervised and conducted cooperative international program negotiations and served on US delegations to the United Nations and to other organizations involved in space flight programs and regulation.

July 1970 - April 1974 - Special Assistant to the Director (1970-71), Attorney for International Affairs (1972), and Manager for International Organization Affairs (1972-74), Office of Telecommunication Policy, Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC. Involved in national policy review, preparation and coordination for national and international telecommunication policy matters. Served on US delegations to the United Nations and to other organizations involved in international telecommunication programs, especially using satellite communications.

Sept 1967 - July 1970 - Foreign Affairs Officer, Office of Telecommunication Policy, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Dept. of State, Washington, DC. Involved in international telecommunication policy formation and US Government representation while serving on US delegations to the United Nations and other organizations involved in international telecommunication programs and regulation.

Dec 1965 - Sept 1967 - Attorney-Advisor, Satellite Communications Branch, International and Satellite Communication Division, Common Carrier Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC. Involved in domestic and international regulatory activities involving licensing and control of commercial satellite telecommunication services and systems.

May 1965-Dec 1965, Associate in the Washington, D. C. Administrative Law Firm of Haley, Bader and Potts. Primarily supporting Andrew Haley in research and writing concerning issues of emerging space law.  Previously served the firm as an intern during the summers of 1962 and 1964.

Prior work experience involved three years of service as a military policeman (enlisted) in the US Army (1954-1957), and earlier summer factory and farm work.


BA in English/History (cum laude) with Departmental Honors, U. Mass. – 1960.
Bachelor Laws (LLB) Duke Law School, Duke University – 1963; converted to Juris Doctor (JD) – 1965.

Post-graduate studies at the Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill U., Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1963 - 1965.
National Security Management, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort McNair, Washington, D. C. – 1968.
Executive Program in Business Strategy, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, 1983.
Aerojet General Corporation, Advanced Management Program, 1986.


Vice Chairman, US Delegation, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) World Administrative Radio Conference on the Use of the Geostationary Satellite Orbit and the Space Services Utilizing It (WARC-ORB 85-88), Geneva, 1985; Delegation adviser 1988.

US Representative, Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, February 1978; Alternate US Representative or Adviser to the US Delegations to the Scientific & Technical Subcommittee 1972-77.

Alternate US Representative or Adviser to the US Delegations to meetings of the Legal Subcommittee of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, 1970-77; also to meetings of the parent Committee and to meetings of Special UN Working Groups.

Delegate and Adviser, multiple negotiating sessions 1973-75, US Delegations to the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), Preparatory Committee meetings to formulate the charter of the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT); Chairman of the International Economic Analysis Group in IMCO on the economic feasibility of INMARSAT (1974).

Delegate and Adviser to the US Delegations, multiple negotiating sessions 1969-71, for the Plenipotentiary Conference to Establish Definitive Arrangements for the International Telecommunication Satellite Organization (INTELSAT).

Delegate, Adviser and Committee Spokesman for the US Delegation at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference, Malaga- Torremolinos, Spain, Sept-Oct 1973.


Visiting Professor of International and Space Law, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, Australia, teaching a course in Space Law and a general course in International Law (1998).

National Committee Chairman, FCC's Public Advisory Committee for the 1985 ITU WARC on the Geostationary Satellite Orbit, 1981-1985; Vice-Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for the second session of the Conference in 1988, (1985-88).

National Subcommittee Chairman, FCC's Public Advisory Committee on preparation for the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference (Region 2) of the ITU for planning of the Broadcasting- Satellite Service (1981-83).

Visiting Lecturer at the Federal Personnel Office's Western Management Development Center, Denver, CO, and at colleges and universities, including Harvard U., Goucher College, George Washington U., USC, U Cal. Berkeley, U Cal. Davis, and McGill U., on topics of space law, space policy, and international organizations and policies involved in astronautics (1971 to 1998).

Delegate, International Astronautical Federation Observer Delegation to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Legal Subcommittee (1989, ’91, '95, '98).


Equal Employment Opportunity Award and Medal, NASA, 1978
National Space Club Goddard Memorial Historical Essay Award, co-winner 1981
Distinguished Service Award from the International Institute of Space Law of the International Astronautical Federation, for outstanding contributions to the development of space law (Bangalore, India 1988)
Space Humanitarian Award, from the World Space Bar Association and the United Societies in Space, Inc.
Multiple academic scholarships; Phi Kappa Phi, national honorary fraternity.
Listed online in Bloomberg Executive Profiles and Biography.
Listed in Marquis, Who’s Who in America, 2018 (71st ed.) 297.
2020 IISL Lifetime Achievement Award, for contributions to space law.


Life Memberships:

Association of the Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University, Montreal, P. Q., Canada
Association of US Members of the International Institute of Space Law
International Academy of Astronautics, Paris, France
International Institute of Space Law, Paris, France; Director 1993-2001; Honorary Director 2001 to present.


American Astronautical Society (AAS) since 1964; former officer and director; AAS History Committee Chairman, 1996-2000; History Committee member, 1990 to present; elected Fellow in 2008.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics from 1966 to 1994, and 2004 to 2010.
Bar Association of the District of Columbia (active - 1964-1996; Retired 1996)
U. S. Supreme Court Bar since 1965. Retired 1996
British Interplanetary Society 1986 - 1996, Fellow 1992 - 1996.
Journal of Telematics and Informatics, Editorial Advisory Board, 1984 - 1994

Consultant /Lecturer:

United Nations consultant on disarmament (under contract), served as project leader and author of a study of the international security implications of civil space systems, concentrating on the dual use potential of space systems (1990-1993). This study resulted in the book Civil Space Systems: Implications for International Security, Dartmouth Publishing, Aldershot, UK, 1994, 271 pp.

Federal Office of Personnel Management Lecturer (under contract), lecturing at irregular intervals (up to 4 times each year) on current developments in national civil and military space policy: lectures are presented in half-day seminar format in a two week National Science Policy Seminar for federal executives.

Consultant to the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA, (1991-92) on a study of the Social Implications of the NASA High Resolution Microwave Search, an analysis of likely social impacts of discovery of a sentient society on another celestial body.

Lecturer or visiting lecturer at several colleges and universities and speaker before civic societies and professional organizations, session chairman, panelist and coordinator for numerous professional society meetings.

PUBLICATIONS (See Bibliography):

Author or editor of selected books, numerous articles in law journals, trade journals, and books; papers presented at conferences and symposia; and government reports and studies dealing with aspects of communications law and policy, international organizations, national and international aerospace law and policy, and emerging technology for power generation.


Married to Rosemary Jean Nichol (1938-2020) of Portland, OR (63 years); former elder and lay preacher, Rescue Baptist Church, Rescue CA (1985-2016); good health; philatelist, gardener; father of 5 children (ages 52-62) pursuing individual careers.


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